Hello friends.. After looking what are Transgenic animals ? Today we are going to discuss a similler topic, that is regarding the Transgenic Plant which is one of the huge research in green biotechnology. And also these Plants or crops are mostly preferred by farmers. So let’s see what is transgenic Plant ? How it developed and what are its application.
What is transgenic Plant..
So friends generally the transgenic plants are genetically modified plants. Or these are the plants customized for accepted changes I.e foreign genes are deliberately inserted in there genomes. This genes are generally inserted into germline cell. And further transferred through there progeny. And also it has many ways.
How to produce transgenic plants..
So while getting information about transgenic plants, we have to see how these plants are generally created. So there are some ways from which we can generate this types of plant or genetically modified plants.
Consider a plant where we have to produce insecticide resistance or herbicide resistance plant.
- While producing these plant we want first important component which is foreign DNA from which we can isolate a perticuler desired gene. With it’s promoter.
- After that this isolated gene is further introduce in plasmid. in general one bacteria.
- Now this bacteria help us to grow or make multiple copies of our desired gene.
- Then this DNA is introduce into plant cell by gene gun where DNA coated with gold particles.
- Then this DNA or gold particles are fired with the help of gene gun which causes breaking of cell wall and then DNA is enter in necleous.
- After that it will helps to generate particular protein
- Also these plants can also produced by using germ line cell.
- With the help of genetic engineering or rDNA technique we can introduce a desired gene in plant at early stage or by creating genetic modification in gametes. Or we can say modification in steam cells
- After that we can grow this cell with the help of tissue culture technique.
- Now it fully developed with root and shoot this plant is implanted in soil which is transgenic plant.
Consider one example :- Agrobacterium tumefacian used as vector
- Agrobacterium tumefacian is bacteria which causes a crown gall tumours in dicotyledonous plants. And which generally found in soil.
- And the gall producing gene i.e. TiDNA which occurs in large plasmid. Which is called as Ti plasmid or tumour inducing plasmid.
- Therefore Ti plasmid can be introduce into infected or abnormal plant.
- Thus this bacteria is useful to transfer gene though To plasmid. Where the tumour producing genes become a marker genes.
- By using plasmid many of transgenic plants can produced in now days.
What are Applications of transgenic plant in green biotechnology ?
- This is also helpful as insecticide, resistance and herbicide resistance.
- It is also used to improve devolope a nutritional quality or increase the content of vitamins e.g. Golden Rice
- It is also helpful in increase quantitative production of crops or for nitrogen fixation technique instead of chemical technique.
- This type of plant have one more advantage I.e. we can arrange ripening period of fruits. E.g. Flavr save tomato.
Bt Crops :-
Here also we can find another interesting type of transgenic plants or crops
- These crops are genarally GM plants which contains some desirable traits like disease resistance, insect resistance, nitrogen fixation, high vitamin content etc.
- Here we use a bacteria named as Bacillus Thuringiensis. And where it produced by inserting desirable gene from Bacillus Thuringiensis. And which further introduce into plant cell by genetic modification.
- This bacteria has tendency to produce insecticidal properties.
- Bt toxin protein occur as inactive prototoxin form. It get active when it comes contact with alkaline pH surrounding.
- when insect eat crops due to alkaline pH of there gut. Here the conversion of inactive to active toxin takes place.
- After that effect of toxin causes swelling to guts. Which results they die after some times. So as like that it prevents from insects.
- Varity of crops can produced by this transgenic method e.g. Bt cotton, Bt corn, rice, tomato, potato, and also soyabean crop.
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