Hello guys, after looking the all over information about DNA, today we are going to discuss the similler thing that is plays most important role in protein synthesis or as genetic material in viruses, that is RNA. It is another nucleic acid in our body and cover the most of part of biology. So let’s see what is RNA in biology ? Or what are its type, functions & structure. So let’s go..
What is RNA in biology?
Friends, Generally RNA is another one nucleic acid i.e. called as Ribose nucleic acid. It has a single stranded structure which contain pentose super, phosphorus, and nitrogen bases. Where nitrogen bases are purines ( adenine & guanine ) and pyrimidines ( cytosine & uracil). And this long chain with nucleotides are joined by the phospho-diester bond which forms 3′ and 5′ ends.
If RNA strand is coiled around itself, then complementary pairing observed as : ( A & U ) or ( U & A ) and ( C & G ) or (G & C ). And most important as there not fixed pairing therefore the ratio of purine to pyrimidine ratio may not be 1 : 1.
This RNA are divide into two categories that is genetic RNA or non genetic RNA. genetic RNA is used in viruses or many microorganisms as genetic material. And in non genetic RNA there are mainly three categories i.e. m-RNA ( messenger RNA ), r-RNA ( ribosomal RNA ), t-RNA ( transfer RNA ). And these RNA are generally found in cytoplasm.
Which are 3 types of RNA in biology ?
So guys, as non genetic RNAs are used for synthesis of protein there are 3 different types which plays most important role for protein synthesis. So lets see what are these types and its functions.
m-RNA ( messenger RNA )
From the name m-RNA or messenger RNA we should know that this RNA transfer message from nucleolus i.e. from DNA to cytoplasm for protein synthesis. Or we can say it is made by the process of transcription from the DNA.
This m-RNA are generally found 3% to 5% of the total cellular RNA. And it has moleculer weight is about 5,00,000 daltons. And it is found non foldable. It consist of two end called as 3′ and 5′ ends. And the most important that in this RNA the nucleotides that arranged on RNA are in the group of three triplet or codon. And whole sequence that is present on m-RNA is called as cryptogram or genetic code.
After that this m-RNA is generally start with initial codons coded as AUG or GUG which is code for methionine. And it has also stop condones at the end of m-RNA these are UAA, UAG or UGA. And these codons do not posses any amino acids hence they are also named as nonsence codon.
r-RNA ( ribosomal RNA )
r-RNA is another type of RNA. Which is generally single stranded RNA which folded at various different places. And here it shows complementary base pairing on itself. This RNA is always associate with ribosomes. And it is found in cytoplasm.
After that, r-RNA is about 80% about total cellular RNA. And also which has molecular weight is about 40,000 to 1,00,000 daltons. The function of r-RNA is to read the protein code on the m-RNA and also to provide binding sites for t-RNA to attach amino acids.
t-RNA ( transfer RNA)
Now the third RNA, t-RNA that is plays one of the major role in protein synthesis. It is found in cytoplasm. It is smallest RNA with 73 to 9e nucleotides. And forms about 10% to 20% of the total cellular weight. Which has molecular weight about 23,000 to 30,000 daltons. And most important, it is a single stranded RNA folded in a particular pattern. Therefore this t-RNA subdivid in two types i.e. Hoagland’s hairpin pattern and Holly’s clover leaf pattern.
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